Why The Hell Should I Care About Polymorphism?

Posted on January 21, 2019
Tags: haskell

Let’s talk about type signatures.

hello :: String -> Int -> String

Pretty clear what is going on, right? Seems fine. What about this lad?

wtflol :: (Show a, Num b) => a -> [a] -> b -> (a, b)

That’s pretty unhelpful to be honest.

What are these letters doing in our types when we wanted, well, types?

Let’s work up from a simple one to a stupid one and maybe learn something along the way. Good? Great.

Probably the worst function ever

Here is a type signature for a mysterious function:

spooky :: a -> a

Given any a, and knowing nothing about that a, what is the only thing that we can do with it?

If you guessed “just return it”, then yes, you were right. It’s the classic identity function.

identity :: a -> a
identity a = a
-- identity 10 == 10

What do you think this function does?

mystery :: a -> b -> a

Since we don’t know anything about b, and the function returns an a, then all we can do is ignore the b altogether. This is called the const function, and is used when we have to want to make a map function do not very much at all.

const :: a -> b -> a
const a _ = a
-- const "dog" 100 == "dog"

Hopefully the pattern you are seeing here is that if we know nothing about our variables, then there is actually very little we can do with them.

Lists of mysterious things

A place most people come across polymorphism quite early on in their Haskell careers is in stuff like lists. Instead of one function that works on List String, and another one List Int, and another on List (Maybe Tuple (Int, String)) we can use polymorphism to act upon the structure of the list itself but not the items inside.

With this in mind, and given that [a] means a List that is full of zero or more a values, what possible things could this function do to our [a]?

thing :: [a] -> [a]

According to the function search engine Hoogle - not a huge amount. It lists four functions that match this signature - and two of them throw exceptions if passed an empty list so they’re not the kind of functions that we like to spend our time with. This leaves:

  1. cycle - this repeats the list of values infinitely.

  2. reverse - reverses the order of the list.

The important thing is that since we don’t know anything about what the hell a is, all the functions can do is mess around with the ordering a bit, as is their right, I suppose. How can we find out more about these a and b values without concretely specifying what they are?

Constraints

If there’s anything going on before the => in a type signature, there’s a good chance it’s a constraint. These are rules that apply to each type they refer to. Here, we are using a constraint on a, that says “I don’t care what a is, so long as it has a Show instance”.

showTheList :: Show a => [a] -> String
showTheList []       = ""
showTheList (a : as) = show a ++ ", " ++ showTheList as
-- showTheList [1,2,3] == "1, 2, 3, "

Therefore, the only thing we can really do to these a values is show them, as we don’t know anything else about it.

We can do something similar with the Num typeclass (which is the typeclass of numbers).

addStuffUp :: Num a => [a] -> a
addStuffUp []       = 0
addStuffUp (a : as) = a + addStuffUp as
-- addStuffUp [1,2,3] == 6

Here, the constraint means we don’t mind which kind of number we are passed - since they all implement + so we can add them together.

We can have as many constraints as we like on our variables (often multiple ones on the same value, such as (Show a, Ord a) => for things that can be sorted and eventually turned into strings) - and can use any typeclass to do the restraining.

I hope this makes sense. This started melting into something about IO testing, but I have decided to spin that into a separate post before this one spirals out of control, so let’s stop for now. Thanks.

Make sense? If not, why not get in touch?

Further reading:

Polymorphism for Dummies

Polymorphism in Haskell