A game in Purescript (Part 1 - Semigroups)

Posted on February 17, 2019

Hello! I hope you are well. It has been a little while between posts as I keep starting things and then not finishing them.

My most recent distraction has been remaking a game that I wrote a year or two back called It Is The Egg, which is an HTML canvas game where eggs roll around and generally have a nice time. I wanted to add more levels and features but I have no strong desire to write Typescript in my free time, so I have made the somewhat foolish and time-sucking decision to port it over to Purescript.

The original game in it’s full glory.
The original game in it’s full glory.

So far I’ve learned a few things, listed thus:

  1. Rewriting an entire game takes a while actually.
  2. Using Purescript means about 30% of the LOC it took in Typescript
  3. A lot of the problems have already been solved by other people
  4. Abstractions are helpful

Anyhow, I figured concrete useful examples are the most difficult thing to find when explaining functional programming, and since I stumbled across a few in this process I figured I’d share some. Today I’m going to example how to describe positions and movement using a semigroup.

Meaningless? Possibly! Perhaps some examples…

So we have a Player type - it describes one of the eggs onscreen. The eggs have a position onscreen, and a direction that they are currently moving in.

This is the Coord type. The eagle-eyed might notice it’s a newtype rather than a type - the reason for this will be explained shortly.

The game board is a grid, so position is a Coord where x and y describe the current square the Player is in, and any movement away from the center is described by offsetX and offsetY. Once a players position offset goes over a certain boundary, we increase or decrease x or y and set offsetX or offsetY back to zero.

The position for the pink egg in the above screenshot would look something like this:

The direction is also a Coord, where we use x and y to express which direction the player is headed. Our pink egg above is falling downwards, which would look like this:

The offsetX and offsetY don’t really have much use in this context, but that’s fine.

So what’s the use in expressing two slightly different things in the same data type and also what about that newtype and why have we not mentioned semigroup yet?

An abridged version of each game turn goes as follows.

  1. Look around to see if we are still able to move in direction we want to
  2. If not, change direction
  3. Move the player in whichever direction we’re now decided on

Looking around the board

OK. So firstly we need to check around the board to see if we are allowed to carry on moving where we are moving. Without going into the whole mechanics of the game board, let’s say we have a function that tells us whether a certain Coord on the board is a place we are allowed to go.

What this function does is none of our business at this point - all we need to know is whether the square we intend to move into is happy with our decision to do so.

My first implementation followed the original logic and looked something like this:

“If we are moving left then look to the current square but with x reduced once but if we’re looking right then look to the current square but with x increased but if we’re looking up….”.

Quite a laborious thing to read really, and it says nothing of it’s intentions.

(If you are not familiar with guard syntax, think of this as very similar to select case statement in Javascript.)

Stand back, I am going to use Maths.

OK, so we made that Coord a newtype for a reason right? Let’s add some typeclass instances to it and get it working for us for a change.

First we must please the gods of boilerplate by deriving some standard instances of Eq, Ord and Show. Purescript needs this to be a little more explicit that Haskell does, sadly.

derive newtype instance means “You know how you’re a newtype wrapped around something, can you just copy whatever the thing inside does? Ace, thanks.”

This means we can now compare and order things, which is helpful although not the main point here.

Let’s define a semigroup!

(Notice that unlike Haskell, Purescript likes us to give our instances names, hence we have chosen the olympically dull semigroupCoord. It could be pintsOfCream or indepedenceDayIsPrettyUnderatedAsFarAsBlockbustersGo, go absolutely wild if you like.)

So what does this append function we have defined do then?

It takes two Coord values (fst and snd in this case) - adds up x, y, offsetX and offsetY - then makes and returns a new Coord. Therefore we can do stuff like add a position and a direction together.

In the above example of our pink egg, and our position and falling values defined above, we can check whether we’re OK to keep falling downwards as such.

(Note we’re using <> which is another name for the append function, we could just as easily have written canMove (append position falling) but I think the little <> looks nicer.)

Looking around the board with Maths

Back to our implementation of canIMoveNext, here is the new version that combines our player’s direction and position in a nice tidy way.

Nice.

Changing direction

What if our egg hits a wall or something? What should we do then? It should be as easy as reversing the direction, right?

Therefore we can use it on our player like thus:

And wrap up the entire logic for the turn like this:

(Readers with a keen eye will notice we did not use anything particularly clever or typeclass based here, I just included it for completeness.)

Another screenshot of the original game to break up the large amount of text.
Another screenshot of the original game to break up the large amount of text.

Actually moving that egg around

Let’s get back to moving the egg around. Once we’ve worked out that our egg is moving somewhere it is allowed to, we need to actually update the offsetX and offsetY in it’s position so that’s in the new location and ready to go through all this hell again. As web browsers are flaky at best, instead of moving by a set amount the actually amount to increment the change depends on how much time has passed since the last frame. Therefore we need a function that takes the amount to move and a Player, and returns a new Player that has moved in some way.

Here, in a similar manner to our earlier function, is something like my original painful version.

It should work but it’s a bit terrifying. Let’s break it up and get some of that sweet semigroup magic working for us.

Firstly, a helper function - this takes an Int and a Coord and creates a new Coord that describes the movement we want the egg to do.

Therefore if we take the falling value from earlier, and a moving amount of 20, it would create something like this:

With our helpful helper function in hand, and a dash of <>, we can now rewrite our move function like thus:

So here we’re creating a Coord for the movement (called moveCoord) - and then using the <> function to combine it with the current position to make a new Coord called newPosition, and then making a new Player with that position.

Putting it all together

Now we’ve created all our functions, we can plop them together like this to do the whole move:

Easy as pie.

“But I thought we’d actually draw one of those attractive looking eggs and instead we’ve just done some shitty maths”, I hear you say. OK, OK, sure, I get it, you want adventure, you want action. We’ll come to it soon, I promise.